Download A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition by John M. Last PDF

By John M. Last

Dictionary making by no means ends simply because languages are constantly altering. commonly used through the international, this booklet will proceed to function the traditional English-language dictionary of epidemiology in its Fourth version. It covers all of the universal phrases utilized in epidemiology and lots of from comparable fields comparable to biostatistics, infectious ailment keep watch over, wellbeing and fitness promoting, genetics, medical epidemiology, health and wellbeing economics, and scientific ethics. The definitions are transparent and concise, yet there's area for a few short essays and discussions of the provenance of significant phrases. backed by means of the overseas Epidemiological organization, the dictionary represents the consensus of epidemiologists in lots of diversified nations. all of the definitions have been reviewed many times via a global community of members from each significant department of epidemiology. they're authoritative with out being authoritarian. The Fourth variation includes good over a hundred and fifty new entries and gigantic revisions of in regards to the similar variety of definitions, plus a dozen new illustrations. a few of the new phrases relate to tools utilized in environmental and scientific epidemiology.

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Extra info for A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition

Example text

It is assumed that causes other than the one under investigation have had equal effects on the exposed and unexposed groups. ATTRIBUTABLE NUMBER The number of new occurrences of a specific outcome attributable to an exposure; it may be estimated using the formula where 7e is the incidence rate among the exposed, 7U is the incidence rate among the unexposed, and Ne is the number of persons in the exposed population. It is assumed that causes other than the one under investigation have had equal effects on the exposed and unexposed groups.

The BERNOULLI DISTRIBUTION is a special case of the binomial distribution with n = 1. BIOACCUMULATION Progressive increase in the amount or concentration of a chemical in an organism or in an organ or tissue when the rate of uptake exceeds the rate of excretion or metabolism. , ed. ) BIOASSAY The quantitative evaluation of the potency of a substance by assessing its effects on tissues, cells, live experimental animals, or humans. Bioassay may be a direct method of estimating relative potency: groups of subjects are assigned to each of two (or more) preparations; the dose that is just sufficient to produce a specified response is measured, and the estimate is the ratio of the mean doses for the two (or more) groups.

See also ATTRIBUTABLE FRACTION (EXPOSED); ATTRIBUTABLE FRACTION (POPULATION). ATTRIBUTABLE FRACTION (EXPOSED) (Syn: attributable proportion [exposed], attributable risk, etiologic fraction [exposed] relative attributable risk). With a given outcome, exposure factor and population, the attributable fraction among the exposed is the proportion by which the incidence rate of the outcome among those exposed would be reduced if the exposure were eliminated. It may be estimated by the formula where 7e is the incidence rate (proportion) among the exposed, Iu is the incidence rate (proportion) among the unexposed; or by the formula where ER is the rate ratio, Ie/Iu.

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