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Sample text

The different steps in the planning process use the separate modules in different ways. In the design steps of the strategic planning (network design and design of the demand responsive service), the GIS can many times be used as the actual planning tool. For the frequency setting, timetabling and the steps in the operational planning, optimization is the tool to use. For all steps, the effects of the solutions can be studied through simulation. For most steps, simulations are done to se what the effects are for the passengers.

Tabu search is the most commonly used metaheuristic for solving the DARP. Cordeau & Laporte (2003b) uses a tabu search algorithm on several different data sets. To model the DARP in a more realistic way, the authors use the time windows for pickup and drop off in a certain way. For outbound trips they let users define time windows on the arrival times and on inbound trips on the departure time. In addition to this there is also an upper limit of the ride time of any user as well as constraints regarding vehicle capacity and route duration.

Many-to-many implies that the customers all can have different origins and destinations. The objective function is to minimize a weighted combination of the total time needed to service all customers, and the total inconvenience of those who have to wait for service. This is done with respect to constraints regarding vehicle capacity and priority rules. If only the first part of the objective would be considered, the objective would be the same as that of the traveling salesman problem. The single vehicle dial-a-ride problem is studied also in Psaraftis (1983a) and Psaraftis (1983b).

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