By Leonard Thompson, Lynn Berat
A background that's either exact and actual, written in a pleasant literary style.”Archbishop Desmond Tutu
Should turn into the normal basic textual content for South African historical past. . . . instructed for school periods and an individual attracted to acquiring a historic framework during which to put occasions happening in South Africa today.”Roger B. Beck, History: studies of latest Books
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Extra info for A History of South Africa, Fourth Edition
Creating a New Colony: Hoisting the Royal Standard at Bloemfontein at the Formal Annexation of the Orange Free State. Reprinted from Illustrated London News, supplement, July 7, 1900, between pp. 36 and 37. Photo: Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection. 26. The Guerrilla Warfare in South Africa: Repairing Railway Lines Cut by the Boers. Reprinted from Illustrated London News, January 5, 1901, p. 11. Photo: Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection. 27. The Congress of the People, 1955.
Moreover, whereas the hunter bands had been small, herders formed larger communities. Their primary social and political groups were clans, composed of people who claimed descent from a common ancestor, but several clans were often joined in loosely associated chiefdoms that Europeans have called tribes. Hereditary chiefs in consultation with their clan heads were responsible for organizing the transhumant movements of their chiefdoms and their defense against human and animal predators. 32 Whereas hunter-gatherers, with their mobile way of life, had no desire to accumulate property and were often affluent within their philosophy of limited needs, when they became herders they began to treat material possessions—sheep and cattle—as a form of wealth; and since the number of livestock a person might accumulate was limitless, they experienced a feeling of scarcity—a desire for more.
But lack of property had its compensations. They had a sense of living abundant lives, for the resources available to them exceeded their wants. “We are inclined to think of hunters and gatherers as poor because they don’t have anything: perhaps better to think of them for that reason as free. . Theworld’s most primitive people have few possessions, but they are not poor. Poverty is not a certain small amount of goods, nor is it just a relation between means and ends; above all it is a relation between people.