By Timothy J. Stapleton
An army heritage of South Africa: From the Dutch-Khoi Wars to the tip of Apartheid represents the 1st entire army background of South Africa from the start of ecu colonization within the Cape through the 1650s to the present postapartheid republic. With specific emphasis at the final two hundred years, this balanced research stresses the ancient value of struggle and army buildings within the shaping of recent South African society. vital topics contain army edition through the strategy of colonial conquest and African resistance, the expansion of South Africa as a neighborhood army strength from the early twentieth century, and South African involvement in conflicts of the decolonization period. prepared chronologically, each one bankruptcy studies the key conflicts, rules, and armed forces problems with a selected interval in South African historical past. insurance contains the wars of colonial conquest (1830-69), the diamond wars (1869-81), the gold wars (1886-1910), international Wars I and II (1910-45), and the apartheid wars (1948-94).
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Additional resources for A Military History of South Africa: From the Dutch-Khoi Wars to the End of Apartheid
12 Wars of Colonial Conquest (1830–69) 35 In mid-February 1851, under instructions from the governor, Colonel MacKinnon led a column of 2,750 men, consisting of 5 British regular companies, 100 CMR, and settler and Fingo levies, to reinforce Somerset’s command at Fort Hare. At the same time Governor Smith ordered another force of 300–400 Fingo from Fort Peddie to rendezvous with MacKinnon. ’’15 In late April 1851 MacKinnon once again left King William’s Town with an expedition of 200 cavalry, 1,800 British infantry, and 200 Fingo that went up into the Amatolas, fought off a number of ambushes, and returned a few days later with 400 captured cattle.
These actions prompted Hintsa to agree to D’Urban’s demand that he surrender 50,000 cattle and 1,000 horses as compensation for the December raids. Hintsa then accompanied a 500-man colonial patrol, commanded by Smith, as it collected cattle from various Gcalaka settlements. On May 12, Hintsa, according to colonial witnesses, attempted to escape by riding away but was pursued and knocked off his horse by Smith. Running into some bush, the Xhosa king was shot to death by colonial soldiers who cut off his ears as trophies.
In early May they ambushed a colonial supply train passing through the Fish River Bush on its way to Fort Peddie and captured 43 wagons. At the end of May a combined Xhosa army of 8,000 attacked Fort Peddie but was repulsed by colonial artillery and muskets that killed 92 warriors. As they withdrew, the Xhosa made off with 4,000 cattle captured from the Fingo. On May 30, Somerset led a supply train of 82 wagons, escorted by 1,200 troops, through the Fish River Bush and pushed straight through a Xhosa ambush—oxen pulling the wagons were shot but then replaced—to relieve beleaguered Fort Peddie.