By Mueni wa Muiu, Guy Martin
This e-book takes a multidisciplinary and long term historic viewpoint to review the evolution of African political platforms and associations. It ranges from Antiquity (Egypt, Kush, and Axum) to the current, with a selected specialize in the destruction of those political platforms and associations via successive exogenous approaches, together with the Atlantic slave exchange, imperialism, colonialism, and neo-colonialism or globalization.
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Extra info for A New Paradigm of the African State: Fundi wa Afrika
By the fourth century, power was exclusively based on military conquest led by the king, by which he expanded his territory and created more vassal states. He also centralized political power by bringing all vassal states and leaders under his direct authority. Upon assuming power, a king engaged in a campaign to make sure that all his subjects accepted his authority. Warlike groups—such as the Abyssinians—were settled on border areas in order to act as a buffer against invasion. Leadership was a monopoly of the king’s family—his relatives were appointed as administrators.
Located along the Nile, Nubia’s small kingdoms rose to power between the conquest of Kush and the Arab conquest of Egypt in 639 BCE. Makuria’s capital was Dongola, while Alodia’s was Soba. Both kingdoms had been occupied by Kush from the third century BCE to the third century of our era, and were thus strongly influenced by Kushitic culture. By 580 AD, many Nubians were Christians, but Islam was introduced in 651 AD when Dongola was besieged by Muslims. The Nubian state was located between the First, Second, and Third Cataracts, which controlled the Nile Valley.
An ideology of the political unity of sub-Saharan Africa based on cultural unity naturally leads toward a unitary continental state, but does not create a federal continental state. 5. Sub-Saharan Africa must be considered as an entity predominantly characterized by cultural diversity. 6. 118 This new African federalism is based on two-state integrative units called “bistate nuclei” or “federative dyads” within which the two federated units are linked to each other by a federative link. 119 A federative link (or direct link) is characterized by an initial bi-state nucleus based on two states sharing the same colonial inheritance, and leads to the most intensive type of integration.