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By Gordon E. Harvey

Three trailblazers for schooling reform within the Sunbelt South.

In southern politics, 1970 marked a watershed. a bunch of southern governors entered workplace that yr and altered either the best way the state checked out the South and how the elements of these states seen themselves. Reubin Askew in Florida, John West in South Carolina, Jimmy Carter in Georgia, and Albert Brewer in Alabama all represented a brand new breed of innovative average flesh presser that helped demolish Jim Crow segregation and the twin economies, societies, and academic structures infamous to the Sunbelt South. Historian Gordon Harvey explores the political lives and legacies of 3 of those governors, interpreting the stipulations that ended in this sort of radical swap in political management, the consequences their legislative agendas had at the id in their states, and the aftermath in their phrases in elected office.

A universal thread in each one governor's schedule was once academic reform. Albert Brewer's brief time period as Alabama governor led to a sweeping schooling package deal that also stands because the so much innovative the country has obvious. Reubin Askew, way more outspoken than Brewer, gained the Florida gubernatorial election via a crusade that overtly promoted desegregation, busing, and tax reform as a method of equivalent tuition investment. John West's dedication to a coverage of inclusion helped allay fears of either black and white mom and dad and made South Carolina's one of many smoothest transitions to built-in schools.

As individuals of the 1st new release of recent South governors, Brewer, Askew, and West performed the position of trailblazers. Their winning attacks on financial and racial injustice of their states have been definitely aided by means of such landmark occasions as Brown v. Board of schooling, the civil rights circulate, and the growth of vote casting rights-all of which sounded the dying knell for the conventional one-party segregated South. yet during this severe detailing in their paintings for justice, we learn the way those reform-minded males made schooling important to their gubernatorial phrases and, in doing so, helped redefine the very personality of where they known as home.

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Extra info for A Question of Justice: New South Governors and Education, 1968-1976 (Library of Alabama Classics)

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One glaring example of such failure was the case of Annie Yvonne Harris, a black school child in Crenshaw County whose parents sued the district for the fair operation of school choice and an end to the dual school system. Their contention was that Crenshaw County, which had adopted freedom of choice in 1965, had not used choice equitably for black and white students. During the 1966-1967 school year, 202 black students applied for school choice admission to formerly white schools. All but nine of them were turned down for what the county maintained were overcrowded conditions in the schools they wished to attend.

Thomas's decree on the suit was favorable to some portions of the HEW plan, which had suggested the total integration of the system for the 1969-1970 school term. Thomas accepted the part of the HEW plan that called for the immediate desegregation of all rural and metro schools west of interstate 1- 65 in Mobile; all schools east of that line would remain under freedom of choice for the following year. The board had to file a plan with the judge for further desegregation of eastern side schools no later than December 1969.

They simply are not going to be driven by the court to do something against their wishes and against their best interests," argued Brewer. 19 Brewer redoubled his efforts to point out inconsistencies in Johnson's order and to show that Johnson and the federal government misunderstood the situation in Alabama. Before his weekly press conference, Brewer highlighted what he saw as some of the more ridiculous aspects of Johnson's orders. He observed that in one system white teachers had been assigned by court order to teach at a black school that was closed the previous year by an earlier order.

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