Download Acre 1291: Bloody sunset of the Crusader states by David Nicolle PDF

By David Nicolle

In April 1291, a Mamluk military laid siege to Acre, the final nice Crusader citadel within the Holy Land. for 6 weeks, the siege dragged on till the Mamluks took the outer wall, which were breached in numerous locations. the army Orders drove again the Mamluks quickly, yet 3 days later the internal wall was once breached. King Henry escaped, however the bulk of the defenders and lots of the voters perished within the struggling with or have been bought into slavery. The surviving knights fell again to their fort, resisting for ten days, until eventually the Mamluks broke via. This booklet depicts the dramatic cave in of this nice castle, whose death marked the tip of the Crusades within the Holy Land.

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37 the Jezreel Valley: Final Report of the Archaeological Excavations (19781987), eds. A. Ben-Tor, R. Bonfil, and S. Zuckerman. Qedem Reports 5. Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 2003. Ben-Tor, D. ” BASOR 294 (1994): 7-22. ———. ” IEJ 47(1997): 162-189. ———. ” In Ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Studies in Memory of William A. Ward, ed. H. Lesko, 1-17. Providence: Brown University, 1998. ———. C. II, ed. M. Bietak, 239-248. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften: Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie 29.

The fact that not a single example showing characteristics of this group was found outside Palestine supports the local production of these scarabs. Othmar Keel, who first noted this group, suggested that it is a product of Beth-Shean from the period following the con66 The scarabs presented here are unprovenanced, and belong to the private collection of Othmar Keel. They are presented to show the features of this group, which were not published with the excavated material. 68 Scarabs displaying characteristics of this group were found also in levels VIII and VII at Beth-Shean,69 67 Keel, “The Glyptic Finds,” 52; Keel, “Scarabs, Stamp Seal-Amulets and Impressions,” 1549; Ben-Tor and Keel, “The Beth-Shean Level IX-Group,” forthcoming.

The second is a long-lasting Egyptian empire in Canaan with military and administrative presence. This paper will attempt to show that scarabs provide key evidence for the understanding of Egyptian-Canaanite relations in the second millennium BCE, stressing the differences between the Middle and Late Bronze Ages. 2 Most stud I am very grateful to James Weinstein, Ruhama Bonfil, and Ezra Marcus for reading the manuscript and offering helpful remarks. g. 4 Nevertheless, it is still possible Tufnell, “‘Hyksos’ Scarabs from Canaan”; Tufnell, Scarabs and Their Contribution; Schroer, “Der Mann im Wulstsaummantel”; Keel, Studien zu den Stempelsiegeln aus Palästina/Israel IV, 203-25; Keel, Corpus der Stempelsiegel-Amulette; Ward, “Scarab Typology and Archaeological Context”; Ward and Dever, Scarab Typology and Archaeological Context; Weinstein, “Egypt and the Middle Bronze IIC/Late Bronze IA Transition in Palestine”; Weinstein, “A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing”; Ben-Tor, “The Historical Implications”; Ben-Tor, “The Relations Between Egypt and Palestine in the Middle Kingdom”; Ben-Tor, “Egyptian-Levantine Relations and Chronology in the Middle Bronze Age”; Ben-Tor, Scarabs, Chronology and Interconnections.

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