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By P S Bulson

The newest advancements within the structural research of aluminium parts are offered the following giving historical past to layout ideas which allows designers to achieve the boldness to keep on with revolutionary principles, supported by way of actual and perceptive structural research.

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As the width of the plate increases f (a/w)=α 1∙0.  Centre cracked flat plate.  The stress intensity factor characterises the crack and so data obtained from a simple test specimen may be applied to predict the behaviour of components of the same material having the same value of K.  This effect may be allowed for by applying an empirical correction which increases the length of the crack so that the LEFM solution gives approximately the correct result.  Constraint increases with increasing thickness, as plane strain conditions are approached, and Kc tends to a constant limit value, KIc, known as the Plane Strain Fracture Toughness, which can be treated as a material property.

3 Continuous models of the form ε=ε(σ): Ramberg­Osgood law A generalized law ε=ε(σ) has been proposed by Ramberg & Osgood4 for aluminium alloys: (1) where E is the Young’s modulus at the origin, and B and n have to be determined by experiment.  2(a) and Table 1).  (a) Sutter’s classes. Page 41 (b) Experimental data versus Ramberg­Osgood law.  Three principal classes are established: Class I annealed alloys (if f 0∙2/f 0∙1 is greater than 1∙060), Class II tempered alloys (if f 0∙2/f 0∙1 falls between 1∙045 and 1∙060), Class III quenched and tempered alloys (if f 0∙2/f 0∙1 falls between 1∙030 and 1∙045).

Measurements gave ‘eccentricities’ lying between 3 and 9%.  3(d)).  This imperfection, even if within the tolerance limits, causes an eccentricity of the load which has to be added to the initial out­of­straightness.  However, even the most severe condition, e=L/1600, when added to the initial out­of­ straightness v o , is such that it is less than the limit value L/1000: (e+v o )≤L/1000 This shows that the L/1000 value can also be conveniently used to take account of the latter imperfection. 10 Page 47 It is, however, very difficult to take account of this effect from a probabilistic point of view, particularly when considering the interacting effect of other mechanical and geometrical imperfections.

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