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By Derek D. Smith

Confronted with America's army superiority, many nations are turning to guns of mass destruction (WMD) as a method to discourage usa intervention. besides the fact that, the occasions of September eleven woke up the USA to a point of vulnerability it had by no means skilled ahead of, making it more and more unwilling to tolerate such guns within the palms of volatile and unpredictable regimes. via theoretical, old, and prescriptive lenses, this ebook explores the trendy protection issue created by way of the dual fears of yank encroachment and vulnerability which shape a vicious cycle of lack of confidence that demanding situations conventional notions of deterrence. utilizing Iraq and North Korea as case reports, Smith argues that the us might have to reconsider its international coverage concepts opposed to WMD proliferation, giving renewed realization to shielding measures, negotiated disarmament, interdiction, and maybe preemption.

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Thomas L. McNaugher, “Ballistic Missiles and Chemical Weapons: The Legacy of the Iran–Iraq War,” International Security vol. 15, no. 2 (fall 1990): 5. Youssef M. Ibrahim, “Iran Reports New Iraqi Gas Raids, and Says Cities May be Hit Next,” New York Times, 2 April 1988; Patrick E. Tyler, “Both Iraq and Iran Gassed Kurds in War, US Analysis Finds,” Washington Post, 3 May 1990; Adel Darwish and Gregory Alexander, Unholy Babylon: The Secret History of Saddam’s War (London: Victor Gollancz, 1991), 78; Christine Gosden, “Why I Went, What I Saw,” Washington Post, 11 March 1998.

H. ” Foreign Affairs vol. 60, no. V. Paul, Richard J. Harknett, and James J. Wirtz (Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan University Press, 1998), 192. W. Rathjens, “Flexible Response Options,” Orbis vol. 18, no. 3 (fall 1974): 680; Lynne Etheridge Davis, “Limited Nuclear Options: Deterrence and New American Doctrine,” in Strategic Deterrence in a Changing Environment, edited by Christoph Bertram (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1981), 52. ”29 Fortunately, the superpowers never had to play out this “doomsday” scenario, and today it is inconceivable that the former Soviet Union would carry out a conventional attack on Europe.

108. Richard Ned Lebow, Between Peace and War: The Nature of International Crisis (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981), 335. , 129–43. Janis and Mann, Decision Making, 129; Booth, Strategy and Ethnocentrism, 107. , 32; Frank C. Zagare and D. Marc Kilgour, Perfect Deterrence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 44. deterrence theory and its flaws 35 Finally, it may be that a state’s leadership actually is mentally unbalanced, incapacitated, or following a nonrational method of decisionmaking.

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